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HVAC engineering: the principle of semiconductor refrigeration

Release time:2018-01-25

Semiconductor cooler is a cooling device made up of semiconductors. It only appeared around 1960. However, its theoretical basis Peltier effect can be traced back to nineteenth Century. This phenomenon was first discovered in 1821 by a German scientist, Thomas seeback. However, he made a wrong inference at that time and didn't understand the real scientific principles behind it. In 1834, a French watchmaker, but also the phenomenon of part-time research physicist Jean Peltier, found that the real reason behind this phenomenon, until modern times since the development of semiconductor have practical application, is cooler] invention (note that this is not called cooler. Semiconductor cooler).

By many n type and P type semiconductor particles are arranged, and the N P to the general conductor are connected to form a complete line, usually copper, aluminum or other metal conductor, composed of two pieces of ceramic pieces like biscuits as clip, ceramic plate must be insulated and good heat conductivity, by the appearance of many n type and P type semiconductor particles are arranged, and the N P to the general conductor are connected to form a complete line, usually copper, aluminum or other metal conductor, composed of two pieces of ceramic pieces like biscuits like pick up the ceramic plate and the heat insulation must be good.

Type N semiconductor. Any substance is made up of atoms, and atoms are made up of nuclei and electrons. Electrons rotate around the nucleus at high speed, and are attracted by the nucleus. Because they are limited, electrons can only operate on limited orbit, and they can't leave at any time, while the electrons on different levels of orbit have different energy (electronic potential energy). Electrons from the far orbit of the nucleus can often be drawn away from the nucleus and move between atoms, called conductors. If the electrons can not form free electrons from the orbit, they can not participate in electrical conduction, called insulators. The conductivity of semiconductors is between conductors and insulators, called semiconductors. The important characteristic of semiconductor is that after a certain amount of impurity penetrated into semiconductor, it can not only increase the conductivity greatly, but also produce different semiconductors of different properties and uses according to the kinds and quantities of impurities. After adding an impurity into a semiconductor, free electrons are released. The semiconductor is called a n type semiconductor.

Type P semiconductors are electrically conductive by "holes". In the external electric field, the direction of the "hole" flow is opposite to the direction of the electron flow, that is, the "hole" flows from the positive plate to the negative pole. This is the principle of P type semiconductor.

Carrier phenomena: the free electrons in type N semiconductors, the holes in P semiconductors, they are all involved in electric conduction, collectively referred to as "carriers", which are unique to semiconductors, and result from impurity incorporation.

Semiconductor refrigeration materials not only need n and P semiconductor characteristics, but also change the thermoelectric potential, conductivity and thermal conductivity of semiconductors based on doped impurities to make this special semiconductor meet the needs of refrigeration. At present, the commonly used material in China is three element solid solution alloy based on bismuth telluride. The P type is Bi2Te3 Sb2Te3, the N type is Bi2Te3 bi2se3, and the vertical zone melting method is used to extract the crystal material.


In the previous:Subvert the history! The Chinese doctor announced that the building became a power station!
The next article:Why do Semiconductor refrigerants do not use refrigerants to achieve refrigeration?

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